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The Loba people of Mustang, Tibetan Buddhists, hold strong beliefs in spirits. They recognize 416 demons tied to land, sky, fire, and water, attributed to causing 1,080 diseases and five forms of violent death. To ward off these spirits, intricate demon traps are set, and horse skulls are buried beneath every house. Passing temples on the right is a practice to gain merit, even followed by horses and yaks. The “Lunga tangen” ritual involves climbing a hill, lighting a juniper and incense fire, and releasing prayers into the wind for long life and good fortune.

Monks in Mustang play long trumpets reminiscent of mooing cows, and they use Tibetan horns adorned with silver, gold, coral, and turquoise. Mustang is a treasure trove of Tibetan Buddhist art. Unlike Tibet, it couldn’t afford to cover up old paintings as the kingdom declined, preserving them. Monastery books here can weigh over 20 kilograms, and they employ cups, drums made from human skulls, and flutes crafted from human thigh bones, following Tibetan traditions.